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   About Nagpur City - Located in Maharashtra state of India

Nāgpur is the largest city in central India and the third largest city in the western state of Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune. With a population of 2.1 million (2001 Census), Nagpur was the nation's 13th largest urban conglomeration in 2001 and the foremost city in Maharashtra's eastern Vidarbha region, in addition to being the state's Winter Capital and the headquarters of Nagpur District and Nagpur Division administrations. On a global scale, Nagpur is estimated to be the 114th largest city and 143rd largest urban area in the world in 2006 in terms of population. Nagpur is also important geographically as it lies practically at the centre of India with the country's geographical centre (Zero Mile) being situated here. Nagpur is also famous throughout India as a trade centre for high-quality oranges grown in the region and hence the city is also known as Santra Nagari (Hindi and Marathi for 'Orange City'). Recently, the city celebrated 300 years of its establishment.

 
State  - District(s)Maharashtra  - Nagpur
Coordinates21.06° N 79.03° E
Area  - Elevation - 310 m
Time zoneIST (UTC+5:30)
Population (2006 est.)
 - Density
2,420,000
 - 
Codes
 - Postal
 - Telephone
 - Vehicle
 
 - 4400xx
 - +91-712
 - MH-31,MH-40
  


Geography and Climate

An Orange farm on the outskirts of Nagpur city
Nagpur (meaning City of the Snakes) is situated in the state of Maharashtra. It has a population of over 2,5 million.

Location - It is practically at geographical center of India, in fact the zero milestone of India is in this city. All major highways NH-7 ( Varanasi - Kanyakumari ) & NH-6 (Mumbai - Sambalpur - Calcutta) amd major railways trunk route (Mumbai, Chennai, Howrah, Delhi) pass through the city. Important Central & State Government offices and institutions are located in Nagpur. Industrial Development is existing along the fringe areas like Kamptee, Hingna, Wadi, Khapri, Butibori and Kalmeshwar. Nagpur’s Municipal Limits encompass 217.56 Square Kms of land areas.

Nagpur is 837 kms. from Mumbai, 1094 Kms south of Delhi, 1092 kms north of Chennai and 1140 kms west of Calcutta.
An Orange farm on the outskirts of Nagpur city
Nagpur has an area of approximately 220 km² and is situated at 21° 06' N latitude and 79° 03' E longitude and a mean altitude of 310 meters above sea level. Being located far away from any major water body at the centre of the Indian peninsula, the Nagpur's climate is dry or mildly humid for most of the year except for the rainy season. Nagpur city receives an annual rainfall of 1,205 mm (47.44 in) mostly between the months of June and September. The highest recorded rainfall was 304 mm on July 14, 1994. Summer lasts from March to June, with temperatures peaking in the month of May. Summers in Nagpur are extremely hot, during which the daytime temperature regularly crosses 40°C (114°F). Winter lasts from November to January, during which it is not unusual for temperatures to drop below 10°C (60°F). The highest recorded temperature in the city was 48.6 °C (119.5 °F) on 1954-05-26, while the lowest was 4°C.

AIR ROUTES : The Sonegaon Airport is 7.5 kilometers south of Nagpur City. It is connected to Mumbai, Calcutta, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Bhubaneswar, Raipur.

Nagpur is also known as the "Orange City," as it is a major trading centre for oranges. It's said to be the cleanest city in India and the second greenest. India's "zero mile" is situated in Nagpur, making it the centre of the country, the point where all the distances in India are measured.

History

The first reference to the name Nagpur is found in a 10th century copper-plate inscription discovered at Devali in the neighbouring Wardha district. The inscription is a record of grant of a village situated in the visaya (district) of Nagpura-Nandivardhana during time of Rastrakuta king Krsna III in the Saka year 862 (940 CE). However, tradition ascribes the founding of Nagpur to Bakht Buland, a prince of the Gond kingdom of Deogarh in the Chhindwara district. In 1743, the Maratha leader Raghoji Bhonsle of Vidarbha established himself at Nagpur, after conquering the territories of Deogarh, Chanda and Chhattisgarh by 1751. After Raghoji's death in 1755, his son and successor Janoji was forced to acknowledge the effective supremacy of the Maratha Peshwa of Pune in 1769. Regardless, the Nagpur state continued to grow. Janoji's successor Mudhoji (d. 1788) came to power in 1785 and bought Mandla and the upper Narmada valley from the Peshwa between 1796 and 1798, after which Raghoji II (d. 1816) acquired Hoshangabad, the larger part of Saugor and Damoh. Under Raghoji II, Nagpur covered what is now the East of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, and parts of Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand.The Sitabuldi Fort







The Sitabuldi Fort
In 1803 Raghoji II joined the Peshwas against the British in the Second Anglo-Maratha War. The British prevailed, and Raghoji was forced to cede Cuttack, Sambalpur, and part of Berar. After Raghoji II's death in 1816, his son Parsaji was deposed and murdered by Mudhoji. Despite the fact that he had entered into a treaty with the British in the same year, Mudhoji joined the Peshwas in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1817 against the British, but was forced to cede the rest of Berar to the Nizam of Hyderabad, and parts of Saugor and Damoh, Mandla, Betul, Seoni and the Narmada valley to the British after suffering a defeat at Sitabuldi in modern-day Nagpur city. Mudhoji was deposed after a temporary restoration to the throne, after which the British placed the grandchild of Raghoji II Raghoji III on the throne. During the rule of Raghoji III (which lasted till 1840), the region was administered by a British resident. In 1853, the British took control of Nagpur after Raghoji III died without leaving an heir. From 1853 to 1861, the Nagpur Province (which consisted of the present Nagpur region, Chhindwara, and Chhatisgarh) became part of the Central Provinces and Berar and came under the administration of a commissioner under the British central government, with Nagpur as its capital. Berar was added in 1903.

TATA, one of the most respected industrial houses in India, started the country's first textile mill at Nagpur, formally known as Central India Spinning and Weaving Company Ltd. However, the company was popularly known as "Empress Mills" as it was inaugurated on 1st January 1877, the day queen Victoria was proclaimed Empress of India.

Nagpur was a scene of significant political activity during India's freedom struggle. The city hosted two annual sessions of the Indian National Congress and the Non Co-Operation Movement was launched in the Nagpur session of 1920. After Indian Independence in 1947, Central Provinces and Berar became a province of India, and in 1950 became the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, again with Nagpur as its capital. However when the Indian states were reorganized along linguistic lines in 1956, the Nagpur region and Berar were transferred to Bombay state, which in 1960 was split between the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Nagpur is the only Indian city to have lost the status of a state capital during the reorganizaton of states. If the demand for a separate state of Vidarbha is granted in future, the city is set to regain its former status as state capital.

Notable Institutions in Nagpur

Nagpur gains its political importance from the fact that the entire political community of Maharashtra descends on the city for the two week duration of the Winter Session of the Maharashtra State Legislative Assembly during the month of December. In addition, a bench of the Bombay High Court is located in the city. Furthermore, Nagpur is known throughout India as the birthplace and headquarters of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a Hindu nationalist organization.

Nagpur is an important city for the scientific community as it is home to the headquarters of a number of national level scientific and governmental establishments like the National Environmental Engineering and Research Institute (NEERI), Central Institute of Cotton Research (CICR), National Research Centre for Citrus, National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, the Jawaharlal Nehru National Aluminium Research and Development Centre, the Indian Bureau of Mines, India's Intellectual Property Training Institute, the National Academy of Direct Taxes, the Chief Controller of Explosives of the Petroleum and Explosives Safety Organisation, and the South Central Zone Cultural Centre in addition to a regional office of the Indian Meteorological Department.
The Old Vidhan Bhavan








The Old Vidhan Bhavan
Nagpur is also an important city for the Indian armed forces as the headquarters of Maintenance Command of the Indian Air Force and an Ordinance factory and Staff College for the Indian Armed Forces are located in the city. A Nagpur suburb named Kamptee is home a neatly laid out cantonement of the Regimental Centre of Indian Army's Brigade that is made up of the National Cadet Corps' Officers' Training School, Institute of Military Law, and other establishments of Indian Army. Furthermore, Nagpur's National Civil Defence College provides civil defence and disaster management training to pupils from all over India and abroad. The city is also the home for Indian Air Force's giant IL-76 transport planes nicknamed "Gajraj."

Due to Nagpur's geographical position, all distances within India are measured from Zero Mile, which is located in the Civil Lines locality in the city.
The Nagpur Bench of the Bombay High Court

The Nagpur Bench of the Bombay High Court

Places of Interest

Deekshabhoomi is famous throughout India as the site where Dr. B. R. Ambedkar embraced Buddhism to promote his efforts to overcome discrimination against lower-caste and untouchable Hindus, and is also the largest hollow stupa in the world. Dalits and Buddhists from all over the country converge to Deekshabhoomi every year on Ashoka Dashmi.

The Sitabuldi fort situated near Kasturchand Park was the site of a fierce battle between the British and the Bhonsle Empire in 1817. The battle was a turning point as it laid the foundations of the downfall of the Bhonsles and eventually the British acquisition of Nagpur city.

Almost every part of the city has at least one major Hindu temple. The Sri Poddareshwar Ram Mandir in Ram Nagar is arguably the most popular religious spot in the city.The ancient Shri Mahalaxmi Devi temple 17km from the city is the town of Koradi draws devotees to its doors throughout the year, especially during annual Navratri festival. In addition, Nagpur also contains prominent places of worship for other religions. The Catholic Seminary located at Seminary Hills is one of the finest in the state. In addition, a Buddhist Dragon Palace Temple located on the outskirts of the city has become popular tourist spot in recent times due to its exquisite architecture and serene environment.

Deekshabhoomi












Deekshabhoomi

The city also contains a few lakes that are popular as recreation spots with locals - Ambazari, Telangkhedi (which underwent major renovation recently), Gandhisagar, Gorewada, and Sonegaon to name a few. With its scenic gardens and recreation facilities, the Ambazari Lake has historically been one of the most popular spots in Nagpur, a status that it retains to this day. Another popular spot is the Maharajbag Zoo, originally a garden developed by the Bhonsle rulers. The Zoo contains several rare species of birds and animals. Pench forest reserve, which is the setting for Rudyard Kipling's "The Jungle Book", is 45 miles to the north of Nagpur.

The Vidarbha Cricket Association Ground (VCA) in Nagpur is one of the nine test venues in the country. A new stadium of VCA is coming up on Wardha road which boasts a seating capacity of 80,000 people.

Nagpur boasts many restaurants specializing in Indian as well as international cuisine. Liberty and Smruti are the two most popular movie theatres, screening all major Bollywood releases. The city is now enjoying its first multi-screen theatre (multiplex) at Wardhaman Nagar. Three other multiplex theatres are coming up in the city.

For its size and population, Nagpur has only two five-star hotels Hotel Tuli International, and Hotel Pride. Other prominent delux hotels are Hotel Centre Point and Airport Centre Point, and Hotel Chidambara. Central Avenue, a main street passing through business areas, has a number of budget hotels.

The VCA Stadium in Nagpur








The VCA Stadium in Nagpur

Demographics

Marathi and Hindi are the two most widely-spoken languages in Nagpur. In 2001, the urban population was 2,129,500, and the number of households in the city were around 410,000. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for around 25% of the population.The sex ratio of 936 females per 1000 people. Around 99.4% of the population was engaged in non-agricultural activities, attesting to the overwhelmingly urban character of Nagpur city.

Culture

The city's culture is cosmopolitan as it contains a large number of people from other Indian states as well as people belonging to the world's major faiths. Every year on Ram Navami (which ususally falls in late March or early April), Nagpur plays host to spectacular shobha yatra in which a massive procession of floats depicting various events from the Ramayana is organized by the Sri Poddareshwar Ram Mandir. The procession snakes through several important streets of the city from late afternoon to well past midnight and is witnessed by hundreds of thousands of people from the city as well as other parts of India. Like the rest of India, Nagpur celebrates major Hindu festivals like Diwali, Holi and Dussera with fervour and enthusiasm. Celebrations lasting for several days are held on Ganesh Chaturthi and Durga Puja festivals in virtually every small locality in the city. Processions are also held on important festivals of other religions such as Eid e Milad, Guru Nanak Jayanti, Mahavir Jayanti and Moharram.

The annual Shobha Yatra held on Ram Navami in the city








The annual Shobha Yatra held on Ram Navami in the city

Nagpur plays host to a variety of cultural events throughout the year. A week long Kalidas Festival organized by Maharashtra government and the South Central Zone Cultural Centre acts as a venue for a series of music and dance performances by such artistes of national repute as Ustad Amjad Ali Khan and Pandit Vishwa Mohan Bhatt. The South Central Cultural Centre also actively sponsors various cultural programmes in Nagpur city, such as the Orange City Craft Mela and Folk Dance Festival, which is noted for its numerous folk-dances. Nagpurians are also fond of Indian classical music and dance as is evident from the regular solo performances held by famous artists like Pandit Bhimsen Joshi. In addition, there are regular stagings of Marathi plays that have a large following.

Nagpur has a vibrant media scene with its own TV as well as radio station. Nagpur is the only non metro city in India that has twoDoordarshan channels in air. In fact, All India Radio's Nagpur station is among the earliest set up in India. Major newspapers in Marathi, Hindi, and English languages are published in the city. Lokmat, Sakal, Tarun Bharat, and Loksatta are major Marathi language newspapers published in Nagpur, while Dainik Bhaskar, Nav Bharat and lokmat samachar leading Hindi ones. The locally published newspaper The Hitavada and Indian Express are the leading English language daily in Central India.
Artists perfoming a Bharatnatyam dance at the Kalidas Festival

Artists performing a Bharatnatyam dance at the Kalidas Festival
Although the middle class continues to comprise the major chunk of Nagpur's population, in recent times the city has attracted the affluent in increasing numbers and was the fastest growing crorepati city in India in 2004. Although historically the city has not reaped the benefits of India's economic boom in comparison to cities like Hyderabad and Bangalore, Nagpur remains one of the most livable cities in the country due to its citizen- friendly statistics. Recently, the city was judged as the cleanest and second greenest in India after Bangalore. Nagpur's crime has remained at a constant level. In general, the housing supply is good and moderately priced in comparison to megacities like Mumbai and Delhi, although the price of land has skyrocketed in posh localities like Ramdaspeth and Civil Lines. The city enjoys good quality and abundant water supply thanks to a successful crackdown on water theft by the local municipal corporation (NMC). However, various parts of the city have been affected by power cuts ranging from two and half to four hours in recent times due to the acute shortage of electricity in the state of Maharashtra. A notable fact about Nagpur is that it has remained peacful even as other Indian cities like Kolkota and Mumbai went through violent episodes of communal conflicts for one reason or another. Moreover, Nagpur is known for its tolerance and acceptance for people from all over India, in contrast to cities like Mumbai where anti-migrant sentiments led to the rise of regionalist parties like the Shiv Sena.

Major Localities

  • The Civil Lines contains most of the government offices and residences in Nagpur including the Bombay High Court bench and the Vidhan Bhavan. The area is noted for its greenery and cleanliness.
  • Sitabuldi is the main commercial part of the city. It contains numerous shops of all sizes and the largest wholesale vegetable market in Nagpur. Sitabuldi Main Road is one of the main shopping streets in the area. Also located in Sitabuldi is the Sitabuldi Fort. It is situated on an elevated area. Being under the control of the Indian Army, the fort is only open to the public on two occasions every year -- August 15 (Independence Day) and January 26 (Republic Day). The longest flyover in Nagpur has its origin in Sitabuldi and terminates at Lokmat Square, approximately 1.5 kilometer away.
  • Dharampeth is noted for a variety of up-scale shops and a retail vegetable market.
  • Ramdaspeth contains numerous up-scale shops, public and private offices, and malls.
  • Itwari is the wholesale business center of Nagpur.
  • Mahal is the old part of Nagpur, and is noted for its relatively narrow streets and crowded residential quarters.

Economy


Nagpur has been the centre of commerce in the Vidarbha region since early days and currently is a large trading centre for a number of commodities and services. However, Nagpur's economic importance has gradually declined relative to Mumbai and Pune after the merging of Vidarbha into the Maharashtra because of a prolonged period of neglect by the state government. During this period, the state and central government offices were the main source of employment in the city. However, Nagpur is witnessing an economic boom in recent years and attracted Rs. 5,000 crore in investment in 2004.

Currently a significant number of industries are located within the vicinity of Nagpur city. The Butibori industrial area is the largest in all of Asia in terms of area. The estate's largest unit is Indo Rama Synthetics, which manufactures synthetic polyester yarn. Other notable units in Butibori include the power transmission company KEC, Hyundai Unitech, ACC Nihon Castings Ltd. The estate also houses a number of other textile units, a washing machine plant belonging to the Videocon group, besides several medium-sized units that manufacture a variety of products. In addition, the first food park in the state of Maharashtra is situated in the estate. Though Butibori could not quite live up to its original promise, industrial activity is picking up due to the saturation in the Mumbai-Thane-Pune belt.

 The Butibori Industrial Estate



 






The Butibori Industrial Estate
 


The Hingna industrial estate located on the western fringes of the city is made up of around 900 small and medium industrial units. The major ones among them are tractor manufacturing plant of Mahindra and Mahindra, casting units of NECO Ltd. (the country's largest casting group), units of International Combustions, Bajaj Auto group, Candico (the largest confectionary manufacturing plant in India), Ajanta toothbrushes, Sanvijay Group (largest steel rolling group of companies for long products in Central India) and Vicco Laboratories. In addition, Nagpur is also home to well-known ice-cream maker Dinshaws, and the nationally famous sweetmakers Haldiram's.

Nagpur is also the next most favoured Information Technology (IT) destination in Maharashtra after Mumbai and Pune due to factors favorable to the IT industry like the city's location in the centre of India, good infrastructure (the spick and span four laned roads of Nagpur give it a leverage compared to Pune and even Banglore), and the availability of a large and relatively cheap pool of skilled labor from local and regional educational institutions. In the near future, Nagpur will also have a Rs. 10,000 crore Special Economic Zone (SEZ) attached that has already attracted some of India's top-notch Information Technology companies like Satyam Computer Services and L&T Infocity.
 

Education

Nagpur is a major education centre in Central India and attracts students from all over the country. Founded in 1923, Nagpur University (recently renamed Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj Nagpur University) is one of the oldest in the country, and has geographical jurisdiction over the five districts of Nagpur division in addition to giving affiliation to hundreds of colleges. The city is also home to three medical colleges - the Government Medical College, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College, and privately run NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences. Additionally, Nagpur has several reputed engineering colleges like the Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology (VNIT) (which is now a deemed university) and the Laxminarayan Institute of Technology (LIT), as well as several reputed public as well as private colleges like Hislop College and Shivaji Science College. And last but not least, a National Fire Service College that runs the country's only graduation course in Fire Engineering and a world-class 25-acre campus of the Indian Institute of Management Technology (IMT) are some of the more elite institutions situated in Nagpur.

In addition to the large number of colleges, Nagpur also has a number of fine schools that offer education through Marathi, Hindi, and English media. In recent times there has been a spurt of privately-funded schools affiliated with CBSE (Central Board for Secondary Education).

Nagpur city had a literacy rate of 89.3% in 2001, which is very high by Indian standards. However, like the rest of India, female literacy lagged behind that of males.

 

A view of one of the colleges in Nagpur








A view of one of the colleges in Nagpur

Transport

Railways

Being situated at the centre of the country, Nagpur is a very important roadways and railway junction and a transit for almost all the trains that connect the country lengthwise and breadthwise, especially trains connecting India's four major metropolises (Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai, and Kolkota) located in the four corners of the country. The main railway station in Nagpur city is the Nagpur Railway Station, while the much smaller Ajni, Itwari, Kalamna, Kamptee, and Khapri are the other railway stations in the city's vicinity.

The Nagpur Railway Station.








The Nagpur Railway Station.

Roads

In addition, Nagpur is a major junction for roadways as India's two major national highways (Kanyakumari-Varanasi (no. 7) and Howra-Dhule (no. 6)) pass through the city. Moreover, Nagpur city has come in the national spotlight recenty for its good roads, which were developed as part of the upgradation and renewal works under Integrated Road Development Project (IRDP), spearheaded by the erstwhile Commissioner of the Corporation Dr. T Chandrashekhar. In another notable development, the Inland Container Depot at Nagpur run by Container Corporation of India (CONCOR) has been the fastest growing inland port in the country in recent years.

Air

Due to the city's central location, Nagpur's Air Traffic Control (ATR) is the busiest in India, with more than 300 international flights flying over the city every day in 2004. Domestic airlines such as Indian Airlines, Jet Airways, and Air Deccan connect Nagpur with major cities like Mumbai (5 flights daily), Delhi (2 flights daily), Hyderabad (1 flight daily and 1, 4 times a week), and Kolkata (1 flight thrice a week and another twice a week). In October 2005, Nagpur's erstwhile Sonegaon Airport was declared an international airport and was renamed Dr. Ambedkar International Airport. Initial flights between Nagpur and Sharjah were launched by Air Arabia with the intention of tapping the strong demand for international travel within Central India. In April 2006 Indian Airlines connected Nagpur and Bangkok with a non-stop twice weekly service. Likewise, Qatar Airways has announced that it will start a thrice-weekly service from Nagpur to Doha shortly.

The masterplan for the MIHAN complex on the outskirts of Nagpur city.








The masterplan for the MIHAN
complex on the outskirts of
Nagpur city.
 

Nagpur is set to be a prominent destination on India's aviation map as the country's first ever Multi-modal International Cargo Hub (MIHAN) was completed on the outskirts of the city in 2006. MIHAN is expected to contribute significantly to the development of the city as well as the economically backward Vidarbha region. Another major impetus to the aviation industry in Nagpur is Boeing's decision to set up a $ 185 million maintenance base in the city in 2006.

Metropolitan

Despite its high population and its commercial importance, Nagpur has a poor public transport system. Buses, which are directly operated by the Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation, number 173 for the entire rural and urban area (according to the Hitavada, Sept., 2006). Such a small number of buses results in unreliable services. Six-sitter auto-rikshaws, which were becoming popular as a cheap mode of transport, were banned from plying on city roads by a high court order in 2006, leaving only the expensive 3 sitter auto-rikshaws available as a means of public transport. The proposed integrated bus and monorail project that is to be implemented in the next five to six years could potentially improve the situation.

Nagpur in 1911

In the early phase of its development, the city was lead by the then mayor, Sushrut Kulkarni, who is famous for being a leading activist during India's freedom struggle. The 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica offers a picture of Nagpur in the early part of the 20th century:

The city is 1125 ft. above the sea; Pop. (1901) 127,734. The town is well laid out, with several parks and artificial lakes, and has numerous Hindu temples. The prettily wooded suburb of Sitabaldi contains the chief government buildings, the houses of Europeans, the railway station and the cantonments, with fort and arsenal. In the centre stands Sitabaldi Hill, crowned with the fort. Beyond the station lies the broad sheet of water known as the Jama Talao, and farther east is the city, completely hidden in a mass of foliage. Handsome tanks and gardens, constructed by the Maratha princes, lie outside the city. The palace, built of black basalt and profusely ornamented with wood carving, was burnt down in 1864, and only the great gateway remains. The garrison consists of detachments of European and Indian infantry from Kampti (Kamptee). Nagpur is the headquarters of two corps of rifle volunteers. It is the junction of two important railway systems, the Great Indian Peninsula to Bombay and the Bengal-Nagpur to Calcutta. The large weaving population maintain their reputation for producing fine fabrics. There are steam cotton mills and machinery for ginning and pressing cotton. The gaol contains an important printing establishment. Education is provided by two aided colleges, the Hislop and the Morris, called after a missionary and a former chief commissioner; four high schools; a law school; an agricultural school, with a class for the scientific training of teachers; a normal school; a zenana mission for the management of girls schools; an Anglican and two Catholic schools for Europeans. There are several libraries and reading rooms.

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain